16 October - 16 November 2003

    Observers: F. Simpson            | Species List |



    This trip report documents the birds recorded while in Brazil with work. Therefore, this account only partly reflects what could be seen on an all out birding expedition to these locations with more time and dedication. Some time was spent in three distinct biogeographic areas during the period:


    A nice cross-section of Brazil's avifauna was experienced but the country is so vast that anyone considering a short trip would do well to devote time to perhaps just one or two areas in order to gain a fuller appreciation of what each region has to offer. Over 400 species of birds were recorded during my visit.



    So many, personal favourites being Scarlet Macaws, Hoatzins and Sunbitterns in the Cristalino rainforest; Hyacinth Macaws, Greater Rheas and the masses of herons, storks, egrets and ibises in the Pantanal; Magnificent Frigatebirds and Brown Boobys along the coast; and obviously the endemic species including Tooth-billed Wren, Black-girdled Barbet, Red-necked Aracari, Bare-eyed Antbird, Glossy Antshrike, Plain Parakeet, Cactus Parakeet, Red-cowled Cardinal, Brazilian Tanager, Grey-headed Tody-Flycatcher, Rufous-headed Tanager, Wied's Tyrant-Manakin, Crescent-chested Puffbird, Ferruginous Antbird, Scalloped Antbird, Cinnamon Piha, and Grey-hooded Attila.



    Travel within the country was on long-distance coaches (excellent service - masses of leg room, seats fold back to form beds, small pillow and a cover supplied, refrigerator with tubs of ice-cold water, air-con, etc) to economise on expenses. Probably better to take internal flights if time and comfort is a factor. Accommodation: Sol Inn Hotel and Pousada Nosolar in Campinas, Cristalino Jungle Lodge in the Amazon, Pousada Pixaim in the Pantanal, a large hut (used by builders working on eco-lodge here) on Serra Bonita in Bahia and small hotel/pousada in Ilheus and Paraty.



    1.      Souza, D. 2002. All the Birds of Brazil: An Identification Guide. Dall.
    Pearson, D.L. & Beletsky, L. 2002. The Ecotraveller's Wildlife Guide to Brazil: Amazon and Pantanal. Academic Press.
    Baedeker's. 1999. Brazil: Map and Guide. AA World Travels Guides.
    Lees, A. 2003. Trip Report: Cristalino Jungle Lodge and Alta Floresta, Brazil, April-June 2003.



    Day 01          16/10/03       London Heathrow > Amsterdam > São Paulo Guarahlos, Brazil.

    Day 02          17/10/03       Campinas, São Paulo (SP).

    Day 03          18/10/03       Campinas (SP).

    Day 04          19/10/03       Parque Portugal & Lago de Taquaral, Campinas (SP).

    Day 05          20/10/03       Bus (~24 hours) from Campinas through Goias state (GO) to Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (MT).

    Day 06          21/10/03       Bus (~9hrs) from Cuiabá to Alta Floresta, jeep and boat to Cristalino Jungle Lodge (MT). 

    Day 07          22/10/03       Cristalino Jungle Lodge (MT).

    Day 08          23/10/03       Cristalino Jungle Lodge (MT).

    Day 09          24/10/03       Cristalino Jungle Lodge (MT).

    Day 10          25/10/03       Cristalino Jungle Lodge (MT).

    Day 11          26/10/03       Cristalino Jungle Lodge (MT).

    Day 12          27/10/03       Cristalino Jungle Lodge (MT).

    Day 13          28/10/04       Cristalino Jungle Lodge > Alta Floresta > Cuiabá > Poconé (hire car) > Pantanal (MT).

    Day 14          29/10/04       Pantanal (MT).

    Day 15          30/10/04       Pantantal > Cuiabá > long distance bus to São Paulo.

    Day 16          31/10/04       Continuation of bus journey to São Paulo and Campinas.

    Day 17          01/11/04       Campinas (SP).

    Day 18          02/11/04       Campinas (SP).

    Day 19          03/11/04       Campinas (SP).

    Day 20          04/11/04       Campinas (SP).

    Day 21          05/11/04       Campinas > São Paulo > Bus (~25 hours) north through Minas Gerais (MG) state.

    Day 22          06/11/04       Continuation of bus journey north to Bahia (BA) state.

    Day 23          07/11/04       Camacá to Serra Bonita (BA).

    Day 24          08/11/04       Serra Bonita (BA).

    Day 25          09/11/04       Serra Bonita (BA).

    Day 26          10/11/04       Serra Bonita (BA).

    Day 27          11/11/04       Serra Bonita > Camacá > Ilhéus (BA).

    Day 28          12/11/04       Ilhéus (BA).

    Day 29          13/11/04       Ilhéus > long distance bus south to Rio de Janeiro (RJ).

    Day 30          14/11/04       Continuation of bus journey to Rio de Janeiro then to Paraty (RJ).

    Day 31          15/11/04       Paraty (RJ).

    Day 32          16/11/04       Paraty  > São Paulo Guarahlos > Amsterdam > London Heathrow.




    Thursday 16 October 2003
    London Heathrow > Amsterdam > São Paulo Guarahlos, Brazil

    Short flight to Amsterdam for the connecting ten hour flight to Brazil. From São Paulo, on to Campinas, about one hour by car. Stayed at the Sol Inn Hotel (US$ 30/room/night).


    Friday 17 October 2003
    Campinas, São Paulo state (SP)

    Road to the University of CampinasSOL INN HOTEL, CAMPINAS 22º 54' S, 47º07' W
    Woke up and had a buffet breakfast overlooking an open scrubby area with a few large trees at the rear and gardens along a busy road at the front. Long ago this area would have been semi-decidous Atlantic Forest but now the area is largely treeless. The first bird of Brazil for me was a Great Kiskadee. A few large Dragonflies around the outdoor pool. Initial impression was a lot of bird activity for such an urban location. Many swifts (possibly Ashy-tailed) and martins hawking high overhead in the blazing sinshine. A dove sp. flew past carrying nesting material. Southern Rough-winged Swallow (2) flying around the buildings - stopped to rest for several minutes on a dead branch showing the characteristic long wings with primary flight feathers projecting to the end of the short tail. A Palm Tanager observed on a roadside lamp post. Later found the nest-building dove - an Eared Dove picking and selecting small twigs from shaded, dusty ground. Tropical Kingbird (pr). Euphonia sp. glimpsed as it was singing away in cover. House Wren (1). Variegated Flycatcher (1). A pair of Green-barred Woodpeckers dust-bathing in a shaded area of the 'woodland' floor. More familiar sight with a pair of House Sparrows. Buteo sp. high overhead. Blue-and-White Swallow (4+). Blue-winged Parrotlet (1).

    Much of the campus is open parkland with tree-lined avenues. Species noted or at least identified: Shiny Cowbird (4), Chalk-browed Mockingbird (2), Rufous-bellied Thrushes fairly common, Great Kiskadee, Sayaca Tanager, Eared Dove, House Dove, and Fork-tailed Flycatcher.


    Saturday 18 October 2003
    Campinas (SP)

    Had another look at the same area as yesterday. A pair of Ringed Kingfishers regularly flying up and down the small stream here, these large and impressive crow-sized birds looking a little out of proportion to the trickle of water. Great Kiskadees calling constantly. Eared Dove (pr). Ruddy Ground Dove (pr). Blue-and-White Swallow. Common Tody Flycatcher. House Sparrow (f). Streaked Flycatcher (pr). Sayaca Tanager (pr). Tropical Kingbird (5+). Spot-backed Antshrike (m). House Wren (2). Rufous-bellied Thrush - several including one carrying food for young. A strikingly plumaged Masked Water-Tyrant on streamside vegetation - this bird looks to me like a cross between a Northern Wheatear (
    Oenanthe oenanthe) and White Wagtail (Motacilla alba). Feral Dock Dove. A Great Kiskadee chased off an approaching Tropical Kingbird. Eastern Slaty Thrush (f). Picazuro Pigeon flew past. Yellow-bellied Elaenia calling from the crown of a tree. Variegated Flycatcher. Southern Rough-winged Swallow. Plumbeous Kite (4) arrived and began circling low over the tree around the hotel. Watched a G. Kiskadee attempting to crack a nut open on a branch. The kites later drifted over to a residential area of houses and gardens - barely a flap of the wings required for this in this hot weather. American Black Vulture fairly high overhead but close enough to distinguish it from a Turkey Vulture by the different wing shape and pale ends to the primary flight feathers. Another surprise at the small stream was a Great Egret passing along the water course before struggling up through some scrubby trees and out into the open. Social Flycatcher (2+). Barn Swallow (6) overhead. Lineated Woodpecker feeding along some larger trunks.

    Later in the day I found a reasonable area within one kilometre of the Sol Inn - a more suburban setting with more vegetation. Masked Water-Tyrant (3). Smooth-billed Ani (2). Sayaca Tanager (common). Blue-and-White Swallow. Long-tailed Tyrant. Eared Dove. Ruddy Ground Dove. American Black Vulture (4). An impressive Fork-tailed Flycatcher on the edge of palm plantation and nearby a Masked Duck flying over some lush vegetation around the stream or perhaps some other hidden water body.
    Swallow-tailed Hummingbird (2). Pale-vented Pigeon (1). Picazuro Pigeons fairly common. Creamy-bellied Thrush (m). Yellow-bellied Elaenia. Glittering-throated Emerald. Cattle Tyrant. On the walk back another Fork-tailed Flycatcher at the surprising (well, to me at least) location of the McDonalds/Texaco garage area!


    Sunday 19 October 2003
    Parque Portugal & Lago de Taquaral, Campinas  > start of long distance bus journey to Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (MT)

    Snowy Egret (Egretta thula)PARQUE PORTUGAL, Avenida Heitor Penteado ,Taquaral.
    A large (197 acres) city park bustling with people but also a healthy avian population. We just had a quick visit, mainly around the Lago de Taquaral but there is also a wooded area and some smaller ponds. Herons fairly approachable with Snowy Egret (5+) and Great Egret (10+) and a single White-necked Heron. Neotropic Cormorant (100+) all over the lake (social feeding observed with groups of birds diving simultaneously) and at a small breeding colony in the tree canopy overlooking the waterside. A female Anhinga strategically perched on a branch overhanging the water surface, waiting to puncture a fish. Southern Lapwing (2); one at the water's edge, and another on a grass lawn. Muscovy Duck (pr). Blue-winged Parrotlet. Great Dusky Swift. Swallow-tailed Hummingbird (2). Cattle Tyrant. Eared Dove. Great Kiskadee. Ringed Kingfisher (pr). Fork-tailed Flycatcher. Masked Water-Tyrant. Tropical Kingbird. Southern Rough-winged Swallow. House Wren. Eastern Slaty Thrush. Shiny Cowbird. Picazuro Pigeon. Sayaca Tanager. Also House Sparrow, Feral Rock Dove and more of those Ruddy-Ground Doves.

    1755h> Species noted before nightfall in São Paulo state: Burrowing Owl, Cattle Egret, American Black Vulture, Eared Dove and Feral Rock Dove.


    Monday 20 October 2003
    Bus (~24 hours) from Campinas through Goias state (GO) to Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (MT)

    0630h. Woke up around dawn to a vastly different scene from the urbanisation of the past few days. The Cerrado habitat resembles continuous savanna-like plains with a few forest patches. Species identified (more or less positively) from the bus window: Burrowing Owl (4), Spotted Northura (1), Nacunda Nighthawk (2), Roadside Hawk (fairly common), Chalk-browed Mockingbird (2), Red-and-Green Macaw (2), Cattle Tyrant (1), Southern Lapwing (2), Smooth-billed Ani, Toco Toucan (3), Crested Caracara (5), Magpie Tanager (1), Greater Rhea (1), Pavonine Cuckoo (2), Great Kiskadee, Cattle Egret (16), American Black Vulture (13), White-tailed Kite (1), Savanna Hawk (1), Barn Owl (1), Neotropic Cormorant (1), Snowy Egret (2), Peach-fronted Parakeet (2), Blue-black Grassquit (2), Common Snipe (1), Long-tailed Tyrant (5), Shiny Cowbird (common), Bat Falcon (1), Grey Monjita (2), American Kestrel (1), Feral Rock Dove, House Wren and House Sparrow.

    Still on the bus - species noted as the habitat became more scrubby then changing to secondary forest and open wooded grassland: Greater Rhea (50+), Crested Caracara (1), American Black Vulture (5), Harris Hawk (2), Yellow-headed Caracara (1), Guira Cuckoo (2), Smooth-billed Ani (3), Shiny Cowbird (common), Great Egret (4), Snowy Egret (2), Cattle Egret (43), Wattled Jacana (1), Horned Screamer (2), Pavonine Cuckoo (2), Southern Lapwing (1), Bicoloured Hawk (2), Bare-faced Ibis (1). After arriving in Cuiabá there was a long wait until the next leg of the journey - a nine hour overnight bus trip to Alta Floresta.


    Tuesday 21 October 2003
    Bus (~9hrs) from Cuiabá to Alta Floresta, jeep and boat to Cristalino Jungle Lodge (MT)

    Habitat along this stretch mainly cattle ranches, degraded forest, roadside wetlands and temporary pools. Woke up around dawn. Species noted (0615h>0720h): Capped Heron (1), Crested Caracara (2), Wattled Jacana (1), Brazilian Teal (1), Green Kingfisher (5), Red-throated Caracara (5), Shiny Cowbird (common), Snowy Egret (6), Cattle Egret (68), Yellow-rumped Cacique (2), Smooth-billed Ani (16), Red-and-Green Macaw, Burrowing Owl (1), Bare-faced Ibis (1), Crested Oropendola and a Southern Lapwing.

    This is the place where the Cristalino Jungle Staff pick you up for transport to the lodge by 4x4 and river boat. We arrived earlier than anticipated so I headed off around a patch of rainforest in the grounds. 09° 52' 38
    S  056° 06' 04W. Screaming Piha (3), Squirrel Cuckoo (2), Red-rumped Cacique (2), Swallow-tailed Kite (2), Scarlet Macaw (4), Red-stained Woodpecker (1), White-fronted Nunbird (1), Buff-throated Woodpecker, Red-and-Green Macaw (2), Dark-billed Cuckoo (1), Grey-bellied Hawk (1), Eared Dove (1), Hummer sp., Capuchin Monkey, Red Howler Monkey and a Lancehead sp. snake

    About one and a half hours trip by jeep through mainly degraded forest and small swampy aeas - difficult to see anything from the small windows as the vehicle bumped along: Fork-tailed Palm Swift, Wattled Jacana (5), Red-throated Caracara, Southern Lapwing (4), Rudd-Ground Dove, Smooth-billed Ani (100+), Short-tailed Swift and Cattled Egret.

    A quick 25 minutes trip upriver to the relatively isolated lodge in the southern margins of the Amazon region provided: Swallow-wing (common), Green Oropendola (1), Bare-necked Fruitcrow (1), Snail Kite (1), nice views of  perched Red-necked Piping Guan and Greater Yellow-headed Vulture, Amazon Kingfisher, Green Kingfisher, Pygmy Kingfisher, Black-fronted Nunbird and White-banded Swallows.

    In the last hour of daylight I had a walk to the 50 metre high tower overlooking the immense rainforest canopy in an area of 165000 acres of pristine jungle: Rufous-capped Ant-thrush (m), Chestnut-fonted Macaw, Capuchin Monkey (2), Yellow-tufted Woodpecker (3) at the top of a dead trunk c30 metres above the ground, Masked Tityra, Long-tailed Tyrant, Slaty-backed Forest Falcon (calling at dusk), and a Sphix's Guan in flight. On the walk back after dark by torch-light: many tree frogs vocalising and a Pauraque on the larger path at the entrance to the forest from the lodge itself.


    Wednesday 22 October 2003
    Cristalino Jungle Lodge (MT)

    Species noted today included the following: Screaming Piha fairly common. Fairly quiet at the 25 metre level of the tower until a mixed species flock came through, feeding between 20 and 30 metres above the forest floor. Some of the species identified were: Blue Dacnis, Red-eyed Vireo,
    Tooth-billed Wren (4) (endemic), Lineated Woodcreeper (3+), a Greenlet (Hylophilus sp.), Yellow-throated Woodpecker (1), Black-girdled Barbet (1) (endemic), Red-necked Aracari (3-4) (endemic), White-fronted Nunbird, Yellow-shouldered Grosbeak (2) and a Slate-coloured Grosbeak (1). Other species observed from the tower away from this flurry of excitement: two fantastic Scarlet Macaws flying over the canopy sounding off as if they owned the place (good views of the pair perched), Paradise Jacamar, Black-bellied Cuckoo, Ruddy Pigeon, Double-toothed Kite, Great Yellow-headed Vulture, several distant parrots although (4) White-bellied Parrots showed a little better. White-shouldered Antshrike (m), Bar-breasted Piculet and a Black-fonted Nunbird observed on the trails. Had a quick look at the river from the floating deck just before dusk noting a calling Zig-Zag Heron, Green Ibis (3), Sunbittern (1), White-winged Swallow, Short-tailed Swift, Swallow-wing, plentiful feeding bats and an unidentified Macaw.

    View over the Cristalino Rainforest from the tower50m Canopy TowerDusk descending over the forest


    Thursday 23 October 2003
    Cristalino Jungle Lodge (MT)

    0535h>0825h. Took a ten minute boat trip unpstrean to the Serra Trail. Climbed up through a steep forested slope from the riverside to an open rocky area with scrub and grassland at the top. Species found/identified: Purple Honeycreeper, Green Honeycreeper, Short-billed Honeycreeper, Fork-tailed Woodnymph, Thick-billed Euphonia, Purple Tanager, Red-rumped Cacique, Piratic Flycatcher, Palm Tanager, Grey-breasted Sabrewing, Hellmayr's Parakeet, Short-tailed Pygmy Tyrant, Turquoise Tanager, Red-necked Aracara (2), Scale-breasted Woodpecker, Blackish Nightjar (2), Plumbeous Pigeon, Black-throated Mango, Black-eared Fairy, Masked Tanager, Yellow-rumped Cacique, Great-billed Hermit, Variegated Flycatcher, Swallow Tanager, Golden-winged Parakeet, Short-tailed Swift, Yellow-bellied Dacnis, White-bellied Dacnis, Pectoral Sparrow, Sphix's Guan (4+), Dusky-billed Woodcreeper, Rufous-rumped Foliage Gleaner, Blue-black Grassquit, and a White-nosed Bearded Saki Monkey.

    On the trip back along the river: White-necked Heron (1-2), Neotropic Cormorant (2), Green Ibis (2), White-banded Swallow, Southern Rough-winged Swallow, White-winged Swallow, Short-tailed Swift, Blue-crowned Motmot calling, Great Dusky Swift, Black-fronted Nunbird and Swallow-wing.

    Various times throughout the day. Rufous-tailed Foliage Gleaner. Blackish Antbird (pr) in vegetation overhanging the Rio Cristalino near the flooded area of the riverside forest.
    Bare-eyed Antbird (Santarem Antbird) (endemic) c300 metres from the lodge in forest along the river. Black-fonted Nunbird (common). White-crested Spadebill. Buff-breasted Wren. Blackish Nightjar (6+) found roosting on a rocky area off the trail to the tower.

    Rio Cristalino Observations from 40 minute trip upstream in the boat: White-necked Heron (2), Neotropic Cormorant (5+), Muskovy Duck (1), Ringed Kingfisher (1), Bat Falcon (2), Amazonian Umbrellabird (f), Swallow-wing (fairly common), White-banded Swallow, Rough-winged Swallow, Scarlet Macaw (2), briefly another two unidentified Ara Macaw species, Amazon Kingfisher (1), White-winged Swallow, Boat-billed Flycatcher, Red-throated Piping-Guan (4), Red-billed Toucan (1) flew over the river between the two forest areas, Red-capped Cardinal, White-thighed Swallow (2), Green-and-Rufous Kingfisher (1), Lesser Kiskadee, Amazon Oropendola, Red-throated Caracara and a Rusty-margined Flycatcher. After dusk: Sunbittern (1), Ladder-tailed Nightjar (10+), Pauraqu (2), Common Poto (1), and Caimen (5).



    Friday 24 October 2003
    Cristalino Jungle Lodge (MT)

    Species noted on the boat trip to Rio Teles Pires: Amazon Kingfisher (2), White-necked Heron (1), Bare-necked Fruitcrow (4), Green Ibis (5), White-banded Swallow, Plumbeous Kite (12), Swallow-tailed Kites (5) and White-winged Swallows. Species noted on the Butterfly Trail: Brown-banded Puffbird sitting at the top of a thick, dead, branchless trunk. Fiery-capped Manakin (m) in scrub on the track though primary forest. Screaming Pihas common. Yellow-tufted Woodpecker, White-fronted Nunbord. Moustached Wren (pr). Tinamou sp. (possibly Little). Blue-crowned Motmot. Grey-breasted Sabrewing. Dusky-chested Flycatcher. Return boat trip: Red-capped Cardinal (2), Green Kingfisher (1), Amazon Kingfisher (1), White-necked Heron (1), White-banded Swallow, Greater Yellow-headed Vulture, Rough-winged Swallow, Bat Falcon (1).


    Saturday 25 October 2003
    Cristalino Jungle Lodge (MT)

    0630h>0800h. Silver-beaked Tanager in the lodge grounds. Motmot sp. calling. Chestnut-fronted Macaw (2). From the tower: Little Cuckoo (1), Scarlet Macaw (2), Long-tailed Tyrant (2), Red-and-Green Macaw (3), White-tailed Parrot (2), Golden-winged Parrot, White-shouldered Tanager (pr), Palm Tanager (3), Yellow-tufted Woodpecker (3), Pompadour Cotinga (1), Screaming Piha, Chestnut-fronted Macaw (2), and Spider Monkey (8+). Back at the lodge at 0815h an Agouti was wandering around the ground and two Brown Capuchin Monkeys in the trees.

    PassifloraOrthopteraLepidoptera Ova

    Back at the tower at 1425h: Bare-necked Fruitcrow (8+) in flight above the forest canopy. Two birds later in a tree right next to the tower. White-bellied Parrot (2), Red-headed Manakin (2), Curl-crested Aracari (1), Paradise Jacamar (1), Grey-rumped Swift (9), American Black Vulture over, Long-tailed Tyrant (1), Yellow-tufted Woodpecker (5), Screaming Pihas singing, Flame-crested Tanager (pr), Palm Tanager (3), Red-and-Green Macaw (2), Tooth-billed Wren (2), Yellow-shouldered Grosbeak (2), Meally Amazon (1), Cuvier's Toucan (1) and another calling nearby, Spider Monkey (4).


    Sunday 26 October 2003
    Cristalino Jungle Lodge (MT)

    0615h>0939h. Black-fronted Nunbirds common along the trail to the tower. Red-necked Aracari (4) ar around 40 metres up in the canopy. Cuckoos active around tower for most of the period with Black-bellied Cuckoo (2) and Little Cuckoo (2). Brown-banded Puffbird perche in the highest flowering tree next to the tower. Blue-headed Parrot (2). Long-tailed Tyrant still perched in it's usual spot. Yellow-tufted Woodpecker (4) also on the same tree again but now more active and vocal and using adjacent trees to feed. Palm Tanager (2) perching on the wires stabilising the tower. Screaming Piha - four birds in the immediate area. White-eyed Parakeet (2). Green Oropendola (1). Grey-rumped Swift (2). Dusky-chested Flycatcher (3). King Vulture (imm) picked up c1km distant. White-lored Tyrannulet (1) with another responding vocally nearby. Paradise Jacamar (1). Pale-rumped Swift (1). Swallow-tailed Kite (1). Thrush-like Wren perched on the tower just below the top level - calling excitedly before flying to the dead trunk hosting the Long-tailed Tyrant. Chestnut-eared Aracari (2). Swallow-wing. Bare-necked Fruitcrow (2). Scarlet Macaw (group of 4), Dusky-billed Parrotlet (7-8).

    An understorey mixed feeding flock encountered here. Difficult to identify many of the birds in this shaded environment. Species positively identified: Noble Ant-thrush (singing & recorded on minidisc), Spot-throated Woodcreeper, Long-winged Antwren, Scale-backed Antbird, Plain-brown Woodcreeper, and Cinereous Mourner. Also a pair of Ringed Woodpeckers showing well in a nearby sunlit glade.

    Morpho LarvaeTarantulaFlame-crowned Manakin

    Great Jacamar (m) perched on a sunlit tree at the largest rock/boulder, showing fantastic iridescent plumage. After lunch there was, again, the usual thunderstorm with the lightening over the reserve today. Just minutes before these downpours the wind picks up, first blowing numerous leaves to the forest floor followed by large drops of continuous precipitation and then the deluge. It soon feels cooler and the air slightly fresher. When the rain subsided today the sound of numerous frogs began to resonate through the forest, followed by the insects, then the birds. Silver-beaked Tanager calling around the lodge. One of the female tanagers managed to get trapped inside the dining area yesterday – today it was a Blue Morpho butterfly.


    Monday 27 October 2003
    Cristalino Jungle Lodge (MT)

    0545h. Headed upstream when the temperature was still nice and cool, slowing occasionally to check raptors perched on prominent dead branches in the canopy of the gallery forest. Approximately 8km upstream from the lodge there are rapids where we had to briefly disembark while the boatman (Jorge Lopes) skilfully navigated up through the rocks and white water. Counts for species detected on the upstream part of the journey:

    Ringed Kingfisher (3)
    Amazon Kingfisher (8)
    Green Kingfisher (3)
    Green-and-Rufous Kingfisher (1)
    Amazon Pygmy Kingfisher (1)
    Bat Falcon (3)
    Red-throated Piping-Guan (4)
    Cuvier's Toucan (10)
    Channel-billed Toucan (2)
    Neotropic Cormorant (25)
    Capped Heron (3)
    Green Ibis (4)
    Black Caracar (4)
    Anhinga (5)
    Rufescent Tiger-Heron (2)
    Plumbeous Pigeon (1)
    Lesser Kiskadee (2)
    Violaceous Quail-Dove (1)
    Kawall's Amazon (2)
    Yellow-rumped Cacique (1)
    Red-capped Cardinal (5)
    Rufous-tailed Jacamar (1)
    Muscovy Duck (2)
    Red-bellied Macaw (64 in one flock)
    Hoatzin (8)
    Ladder-tailed Nightjar (3)
    Glossy Antshrike (2) (endemic)
    Rusty-backed Spinetail (1)
    Black-capped Donacobius (6)
    Greater Ani (2)
    Speckled Chachalaca (1)
    Spotted Sandpiper (1)
    Hook-billed Kite (1)
    Sunbittern (2)
    Agami Heron (1)
    Squirrel Cuckoo (1)
    Greater Yellow-headed Vulture (3)
    Blue-and-Yellow Macaw (6)
    Crimson-bellied Macaw (6)
    Striated Heron (3)
    Red-throated Caracara (1)
    Plumbeous Kite (1)
    Flame-crested Manakin (1)
    White-banded Swallow (common)
    Southern Rough-winged Swallow (common)
    White-winged Swallow (common)
    Smooth-billed Ani (4)
    Palm Tanager (common)
    Zig-Zag Heron (1)

    Smooth-fronted Caiman (Paleosuchus trigonatus) on a sandy shoreline. Three Giant River Otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) resting on the trunk of a partially submerged tree which had fallen from the forest. The otters became extremely vocal as we passed and began diving and surfacing sporadically along the bank with just their heads exposed. Around the inlets and pools where the Hoatzins breed there is luxuriant emergent and overhanging vegetation - this area was particularly rich in wildlife and held the Sunbitterns, Donacobius Wren, Lesser Kiskadees, Spinetail, and Agami Heron, etc.

    1500h. Our stay at the lodge had come to an end and we boarded the boat for the start of the trip back to Alta Floresta and Cuiabá. Also departing today was the birding group from Pennsylvania led by Armas Hill. Best bird along the river was a Pavonine Quetzal perched fairly high. On the jeep ride back to Alta Floresta we made a couple of stops to check some small wetland areas. Spangled Cotinga (m). Turqoise-fronted Parrots fairly common in the cattle ranching areas interspersed with palm groves. Limpkin (2). Snail Kite. American Purple Gallinule (4). Wattled Jacana (20+). Southern Scrub-Flycatcher (1). Masked Tityra (2). Crimson-crested Woodpecker (pr). Yellow-tufted Woodpecker (3). Lesser Kiskadee. Chestnut-eared Aracari (4). Amazon Kingfisher (1). Grey-breasted Martin. Purple Martin. Shiny Cowbird. Oropendola sp. Burrowing Owl (2). Comb Duck (2). Epaulet Oriole (1). Crested Oropendola. Fork-tailed Palm Swift. Southern Lapwing (2). American Kestrel flying from roadside post-to-post right beside the van. Great Kiskadee. Cattle Egret (50+). Capped Heron (2).

    Overnight bus took 12 hours this time.


    Tuesday 28 October 2003
    Cristalino Jungle Lodge > Cuiabá > Poconé > The Pantanal

    White-throated Kingbird in Cuiabá. Hired a car from YES RENT A CAR and drove c100km to the edge of the largest wetland (200,000 km2) in South America located in southern Mato Grosso and Mato Gross do Sul states near the border with Bolivia. It was extremely hot and uncomfortable in a car without air conditioning. From the police checkpoint at the start of the Transpantaneira which was really just a 145km dirt track full of holes with rickety bridges of crumbling wood over wetlands and creeks nearly every other kilometre or so. We crossed about 100, some of which were in bad state, i.e. we got stuck twice on the Wednesday with the wheels spinning free in the holes in the broken planks below and had to be rescued once. The second time we managed to use some spare planks to lever the car out!

    WetlandsTranspantaneiraJaribus at Dusk

    The main habitat types along the road, apart from the wetlands, are: open grasslands and savanna-like cerrado with cattle; hot, dry an impenetrable thorny scrub; and drier, sub-tropical forest. Species observed on the drive:
    Chestnut-eared Aracari (1)
    White-necked Heron (regular single birds)
    Cattle Egret (fairly commoon)
    Rufescent Tiger-Heron (one or two at most pools)
    Plumbeous Ibis (100+)
    Jaribu (6)
    American Wood Stork (150+)
    Maguari Stork (1)
    Horned Screamer (2)
    Black-collared Hawk (2)
    Limpkin (100+)
    Whistling Heron (1)
    Fasciated Tiger-Heron (1)
    Pinnated Bittern (1)
    White-faced Ibis (10)
    Ringed Kingfisher (9)
    Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture (common)
    American Black Vulture (common)
    Yellow-billed Cardinal (common)
    Pale-crested Woodpecker (pr)
    Tataupa Tinamou (1)
    Yellow-headed Caracara (3)
    Turkey Vulture (common)
    Wattled Jacana (common)
    Crested Caracara (common)
    Southern Lapwing (common)
    Campo Flicker (pr)
    Chimango Caracara (1)
    Guira Cuckoo (common in drier areas)
    Campo Minor (2)
    Swallow-tailed Cotinga (4)
    Brown-chested Martin (common)
    Bank Swallow
    Tropical Kingbird
    Unicoloured Blackbird
    Cliff Swallow
    Rufous Hornero (common)
    Giant Woodrail (pr)
    Rufous-bellied Thrush
    Silver-beaked Tanager
    Smooth-billed Ani
    Long-tailed Ground Dove (2)

    Drove up here in the hope of finding some accommodation for the night. Rusty-margined Guans common and noisy along the road. Pantanal Caiman (
    Caiman crocodilus yacare) regular by the roadside but a rapidly evaporating pool near the lodge held around 150 in a very small area! Some, about three metres in length, were lying across the track and a bridge. A pair of Jaribu Storks breeding in a dead tree also hosted several pairs of Golden-chevroned Parakeets nesting within the base of the huge mass of branches and twigs. Green-and-Rufous Kingfisher (1). Lesser Yellowlegs (1). Amazon Kingfisher (2). Turquoise-fronted Parrot. Black-hooded Parrot. Solitary Sandpiper (1). South American Coati (Nasua nasua) - two seen bounding through drier grassland, eventually disappearing with only the tops of the tails visible above the grass heads. Plenty of Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) with many family groups observed. A single Red Brocket Deer (Mazama americana) showed well at the edge of a forest patch. Several, much larger and less secretive Marsh Deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) passing over the tracks and another grazing in a densely vegetated wetland area. Cattle Egret numerous. Buff-necked Ibis (2). White-headed Marsh Tyrant. Boat-billed Flycatcher. Yellow-rumped Cacique. Black-tailed Tityra (m). Fork-tailed Flycatcher. Rusty-margined Flycatcher.

    Arrived 30 minutes before sunset. The lodge was temporarily closed or at least advance booking was required but the staff allowed us to wander around the grounds at dusk enjoying a Caipirinha and the Hyacinth Macaws!! Many birds were flying in to roost but my first was actually by the track just outside the lodge when one lifted off from the ground just metres away and take flight through the open woodland and grassland - this massive parrot really did take my breath away! Pairs were observed arriving and at least 30 were present as a noisy collective in the crown of the palms at dusk. Other species note: A single Roseate Spoonbill at a small pool. Cattle Tyrants and Rufous Horneros common in the short grassland around the grounds. Another Coati in long grassland. By the time we drove back along the track towards the Transpantaneira it was dark. The car headlights revealed the presence of much nocturnal activity with eye-shine from nightjars, capybara and caiman. Lesser Nighthawks common. Once back on the Transpantaneira we found some lodgings further on at Pousada Pixaim.


    Wednesday 29 October 2003
    Transpantaneira, Pantanal

    Rickety Bridge on the TranspantaneiraThis was probably my best days birding ever, anywhere!

    The lodge is constructed on high wooded stilt-like supports to escape the flood during the wet seaaon. The owner had placed several bird feeders constructed from halved sections of thick bamboo canes around the property. Filled with ground maize and hung on chains, they attracted good numbers of passerines: Yellow-billed Cardinal (100+), Saffron Finch (c30), Bar-winged Cowbird (c10), Shiny Cowbird, and Long-tailed Ground Dove (4).
    Drove slowly one-way for about five hours (quicker on the way back) in the hottest and most humid conditions imaginable before returning for another night at Pixaim. At many of the bridges there is an additional dry season route where the road slopes down and fords the near-dry watercourse. Most still had some water and wet mud in which we succeeded in getting stuck in once before using some wooden planks to give the wheels some grip. After the Jaguar study centre we saw no dwellings or signs of human life - take lots of water! What little liquids we had left by this point were the temperature of warm tea. Since the car had no air-con we drove with all the windows and the boot open. The disadvantage of this was that everything got covered in red dust and grit from the road and the fairly abundant mosquitoes liked to hitch a lift by swarming in via the boot. Most waterbirds were numerous along the roadside so the following are really just estimates:

    Yellow-billed Cardinal
    Saffron Finch
    Savanna Hawk (2)
    Southern Screamer (8), all in pairs.
    Long-tailed Tyrant (a few)
    Toco Toucan (a few)
    Orinoco Goose (1)
    Rufous-tailed Jacamar (1)
    Spotted Sandpiper (1)
    Bar-winged Cowbird
    Black-crowned Night Heron (1)
    Glittering-bellied Emerald (2)
    Picui Ground Dove (2)
    Rufous Cacholote (4)
    Bare-faced Curassows (4)
    Anhinga (20+)
    Great Egret (c40)
    Chestnut-bellied (Agami) Heron (1)
    Rufescent Tiger-Heron (c20)
    White-necked Heron (c30)
    Whistling Heron (2)
    Snowy Egret (c20)
    American Wood Stork (500+)
    Cattle Egret (c150)
    Striated Heron (c40)
    Maguari Stork (5)
    Capped Heron (15)
    Plumbeous Ibis (c150)
    Limpkin (c300)
    Roseate Spoonbill (2)
    Pinnated Bittern (1)
    Muscovy Duck (4)
    Jaribu (20+), several nests.
    Green Ibis (c40)
    Bare-faced Ibis (c10)
    Buff-necked Ibis (3)
    White-faced Ibis (c10)
    Neotropic Cormorant (c50)
    Black-collared Hawk (c20)
    Ringed Kingfisher (30+)
    American Black Vulture
    Turkey Vulture
    Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture
    Tropical Kingbird
    Rusty-margined Flycatcher (common)
    Crested Caracara (common), usually on the ground.
    Greater Rhea (10)
    Long-tailed Ground Dove
    Rufous Hornero (common), vocal at nest sites.
    Wattled Jacana (common)
    Black-capped Donacobius (fairly common)
    Brown-chested Martin
    Grey-fronted Dove
    Vermillion Flycatcher
    Cattle Tyrant (fairly common), one hitching a lift on the back of an adult Capybara.
    Monk Parakeet (common & noisy)
    Sharp-shinned Hawk (1)
    Grassland Sparrow
    Unicoloured Blackbird
    Sunbittern (2)
    Black-backed Water Tyrant (5)
    Troupial (3)
    Greater Thornbird (2)
    Great Kiskadee
    White-headed Marsh Tyrant (c10)
    Yellow-chevroned Parakeet
    Giant Cowbird
    Greater Ani
    Short-tailed Hawk (1)
    Pale-legged Hornero (1)
    Solitary Black Cacique
    Chopi Blackbird
    Ruddy Ground-Dove
    Yellow-rumped Cacique
    Gilded Hummingbird
    Great Black Hawk (3)
    Shiny Cowbird
    Ashy-headed Greenlet
    Hyacinth Macaw (2) at Reserva Ecologica do Jaguar
    Amazaon Kingfisher (1)
    Green Kingfisher (4)
    Crane Hawk
    Roadside Hawk
    Streaked Flycatcher
    Hooded Tanager
    Turquoise-fronted Parrot
    Grey-necked Wood-Rail (4)
    Fork-tailed Flycatcher
    Smooth-billed Ani
    Black-hooded Parakeet
    Chaco Chachalaca (common)
    Brown-chested Martin
    Bat Falcon
    Green-and-Rufous Kingfisher (1)
    Rusty-margined Guan (common)
    Yellow-headed Caracara
    Snail Kite
    Greyish Saltator
    White-faced Whistling-Duck


    Thursday 30 October 2003
    Pantanal: Pixaim > Cuiabá

    0600h. We had one hour on the (? Rio Clarinho) slow, meandering river with sand bars, islands, lush riverine vegetation and small patches of gallery forest. Species observed:

    Greyish Saltator (1)
    Black-collared Hawk (1)
    White-necked Heron (8)
    Pied Lapwing (1) on a sandy bank.
    Southern Lapwing (1)
    Striated Heron (5)
    Anhinga (11)
    White-faced Ibis (1)
    Spotted Sandpiper (2)
    Laughing Falcon (1) perched in a riverside tree.
    American Black Vulture
    Amazon Kingfisher (4)
    Rufescent Tiger-Heron (9)
    Bare-faced Curasso (2mm, 2ff)
    Limpkin (10)
    Sunbittern (2)
    Snow Egret (3)
    Giant Wood-Rail (pr)
    Jaribu (1)
    Rusty-margined Flycatcher (2)
    Neotropic Cormorant (3)
    Ringed Kingfisher (2)
    Grey-necked Wood-Rail (2prs)
    Green Ibis (2)
    Pale-legged Hornero (1)
    Muscovy Duck (1)
    Little Blue Heron (1)
    Roseate Spoonbill (2)
    Wattled Jacana (1)
    Maguari Stork (1)
    Osprey (1) perched about 10 metres above the river in a tree.
    Chaco Chachalaca (1)
    Great Egret (2)
    Black-and-White Hawk Eagle (1)
    Saffron Finch
    Rufous Hornero
    Yellow-billed Cardinal
    In addition, there were many Caiman along the riverbanks. They would slip into water at the approach of the boat and swim out towards a mid-river position with little more than the eyes showing above the surface, before submerging completely.

    Ringed Kingfisher (Ceryle torquata)Pantanal SunsetCapybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)

    0845h. Ventured into some fairly impenetrable scrub by way of a route cleared for the purpose of horse riding trips for tourists to the Pixaim lodge. Some larger trees present. First walked around the lodge then into the scrub. Around the lodge: Scaled Dove (pr), Yellow-billed Cardinal, Brown-chested Martin, Shiny Cowbird, Rufous Hornero, House Sparrow, Saffron Finch, Solitary Black Cacique, American Black Vulture, Giant Cowbird, and Bar-winged Cowbird. In the marshy roadside area at the lodge: Cattle Tyrant, Wood Stork, Limpkin, White-necked Heron, Wattled Jacana, Streaked Flycatcher, Jaribu, Green Ibis, Great Kiskadee, Anhinga, Rusty-margined Flycatcher, Chopi Blackbird, Black-collared Hawk, and Neotropic Comorant, In the dry scrub: Little Cuckoo, Rufous Cacholote, Rusty-collared Seedeater (m), Hooded Tanager (3-4), Greyish Saltator (3), Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant (2), Sooty-fronted Spinetail (1), Bananaquit, Rusty-backed Antwren (pr) at two metres range, Purplish Jay (2) and a Stripe-necked Tody-Tyrant.

    Noted many of the now familiar waterbirds of the last few days. Observed another two Hyacinth Macaws in a palm by the roadside as well as Buff-necked Ibis, Greater Rhea, Roseate Spoonbill, Toco Toucan, Pale-legged Hornero, Unicoloured Blackbird and Brown-crested Flycatcher.

    Took the 24 hour bus at 2000h after returning the car and hurrying into a taxi for the station.


    Friday 31 October 2003
    Campinas (SP)

    0600h. Observations from the bus window: Toco Toucan perched on a termite mound in open cerrado, Cattle Egret (11), Southern Lapwing (6), American Black Vulture (10), Shiny Cowbird, House Sparrow (only noted in the towns), Blue-and-Yellow Macaw (6), Fork-tailed Flycatcher (common), Squirrel Cuckoo (3), Greater Rhea (5), Crested Caracara (3), Pal e-vented Pigeon (identified while the bus was stopped for a while at roadworks), White-rumped Monjita (1), Southern Rough-winged Swallow, Burrowing Owl (3), Great Egret (1), Snowy Egret (1), Red-legged Seriema (1) in a field close to the roadside, Picazuro Pigeon, Guira Cuckoo (6), and a Smooth-billed Ani. The journey actually took 27 hours due to the delays on the road caused by roadworks and a police search of the vehicle. In addition Campinas is two time zones ahead of Cuiabá so after leaving at 2000h on the 30th we arrived at 01000 on the 1st of Novemeber (local times).


    Saturday 1 November 2003
    Campinas (SP)

    No observations made.


    Sunday 2 November 2003
    Campinas (SP)

    No observations made.


    Monday 3 November 2003
    Campinas (SP)

    No observations made.


    Tuesday 4 November 2003
    Campinas (SP)

    Burrowing Owl (imm) perched on a rock on the central traffic island splitting the road running from the Texaco garage an McDonalds to the Unicamp. Photographed it from the pavement before it flew up into a tree. Black Vultures soaring high over the city. A group of (4) Chalk-browed Mockingbirds on telegraph wires above a plot of waste ground at the end of a street -sharing the line with an Eared Dove and a Tropical Kingbird. Fork-tailed Flycatcher also on wires further along the street. Cattle Tyrant and Rufous-bellied Thrush on the grassy areas on the edge of the campus. In tree patches around the university buildings: Streaked Flycatcher, Blue-and-White Swallow and Great Kiskadee.

    Mainly open with a few patches of woodland. Bananaquits singing away repetitively. Sayaca Tanager,
    Plain Parakeet (endemic), Picazuro Pigeon, Eared Dove, Black Vulture and Great Egret.


    Wednesday 5 November 2003
    Campinas > São Paulo > Bahia state

    Observations while waiting for a taxi: House Wren, Bananaquit, Ruddy-Ground-Dove, Eared Dove, House Sparrow, Great Kiskadee and Blue-and-White Swallow.

    A 90 minute bus journey noting: Black Vulture, Southern Lapwing (inkling a pair on a large roundabout near the centre of São Paulo ), Fork-tailed Flycatcher, Cattle Egret and Smooth-billed Ani.

    Start of 25hr bus journey up the east coast of Brazil. Species noted from the window: Swallow-tailed Kite (including a flock of six), Snail Kite, Black Vulture (common), House Sparrow (noted in all towns and villages), Shiny Cowbird, Streamer-tailed Tyrant, Southern Lapwing (fairly common), Cattle Egret (fairly common), Great Kiskadee, Smooth-billed Ani, Fork-tailed Flycatcher, Feral Rock Dove (only on towns and villages), White-collared Swift (flk. 100+), Swallow-tailed Hummingbird (2), Guira Cuckoo, Neotropic Cormorant (flk. 30), Cliff Flycatcher.


    Thursday 6 November 2003
    Continuation of 25hr bus journey through Minas Gerais & Bahia states

    Habitat mainly dry, deciduous scrub and sandy, rocky or burnt grasslands with obvious columnar cacti. Species noted from the bus window: American Black Vulture (abundant, including a flock of c80 at a carcass), Purple Martin, Crested Caracara, Smoth-billed Ani, Guira Cuckoo, House Sparrow, Giant Cowbird, White Monjita (perched on a roadside fencepost near Km-915), Cattle Egret, Southern Lapwing,
    Cactus Parakeet (two individuals perched by the roadside near Km-899 & Km-895) (endemic), White Monjita (further 4), Snowy Egret, Small-billed Tinamou (in patchy scrub at Km-878), Turkey Vulture (many singles), Wattled Jacana (at most roadside pools), Pearl Kite (c10 km north of Vitoria), Tropical Kingbird, Burrowing Owl, White-browed Blackbird (m+pr), Spot-flanked Gallinule (1), Wing-banded Hornero.

    Slow journey in a dirt road through more humid, fragmented forest with much understory plantations, small farms and roadside pools and marshes.

    Species observed in fields/pools on the forest edge: Pied-billed Grebe (1), Fork-tailed Flycatcher, Great Kiskadee, Great Egret, Common Stilt (5), White-faced Tree Duck (1), Masked Water-Tyrant, Red-cowled Cardinal (group of 4) (endemic), Monarch (a few by the roadside), Solitary Sandpiper (1), Russet Crowned Crake (1), Striated Heron at a pool on a garden, Green-winged Saltator (1), Blackish Rail (1) and Rusty-margined Flycatcher.

    Species observed with the fragmented forest area: Pale-legged Hornero, Ruddy Quail-Dove (2), Turkey Vulture, Sayaca Tanager, Great Kiskadeem, Brazilian Tanager (m) (endemic), Black-capped Donacobius, Rufous-fronted Thornbird (several, including nests), Smooth-billed Ani, Tropical Kingbird, Bank Swallow (Sand Martin) (flock of 100+ over a flooded area along the river).

    Black Vultures abundant all over the town including a group of c60 on the ground.


    Friday 7 November 2003
    Camacá to Serra Bonita

    Through our contacts at the university in Campinas we arranged to spend some time in an area of low cloud forest acquired by a local conservation organisation. An ecolodge is being built on Serra Bonita, an area of Atlantic Rainforest near Camacá, and we stayed in a large hut with kitchen and dorms.

    Yellow-rumped Cacique (5), Great Kiskadee (1), Black Vulture (abundant), Turkey Vulture (common), Smooth-billed Ani (common lower down around the town, a few higher up), Wattled Jacana (4), Tropical Kingbird (2), Rufous-bellied Thrush (3), Masked Water-Tyrant (1), Common Gallinule (1), Brown-chested Martin (5), Rufous Ground-Dove (2), Wren sp. (over the road), Parakeet sp. (3 in flight), Rufous Hornero (1), Sayaca Tanager (2), Piratic Flycatcher (1).

    Rained until just before dusk. Species noted around the huts: Rufous-bellied Thrush (several singing birds), House Wren (2), Palm Tanager (4), Piratic Flycatcher (1) and a Semi-collared Nighthawk flying high over the forest just before dusk.


    Saturday 8 November 2003
    Serra Bonita, (BA)

    0615-0845h. Grey-headed Tody-Flycatcher (1) (endemic) on the edge of the trees right in front of the lodge. Bananaquit (1). Sayaca Tanager (3). Crested Caracara overhead. White-bellied Seedeater (pr) in grassland/scrub around the lodge. Violaceous Euphonia (1). White-shouldered Fire-eye (pr). House Wren singing. Rufous-headed Tanager (2) (endemic). Green-headed Tanager (2). Tropical Peewee (4+ active and conspicuous). Streaked Xenops (pr). Squirrel Cuckoo (1). Scale-throated Hermit (2+). Straight-billed Woodcreeper (2). Black-throated Trogon (1).

    Forest InteriorView from Serra BonitaDawn

    Noted throughout the rest of the day: Olive-green Flycatcher at nest overhanging the main track down the hill to Camacá. Wied's Tyrant-Manakin (pr) (endemic) feeding at a spider's web low down near the ground in dense forest - followed by a Tropical Peewee. Parakeet sp. (5 o/h). A pair of Yellow-legged Thrushes feeding a juvenile. Tyrannulet sp. Versicoloured Emerald. Piratic Flycatcher. Tropical Kingbird. Great Kiskadee. Southern Rough-winged Swallow. Semi-collared Nighthawk at dusk.


    Sunday 9 November 2003
    Serra Bonita, (BA)

    0545h> Around the lodge huts: Yellow-bellied Seedeater (2), White-bellied Seedeater (2) and Red-necked Tanager (pr) in grassland below the eco-lodge development. Spotted Piculet (pr) hammering in a small tree here at eye-level - distinctive large white spots in the nape, rear crown, wings and underparts, and a red forehead. House Wrens singing. Sayaca Tanager (2). Piratic Flycatcher (2-3). Green-headed Tanager (2) - orange rump noted. Rufous-bellied Thrush. Black Caracara overhead. Tropical Kingbird (2). Great Kiskadee (2). Grey-headed Tody-Tyrant (1).  

    Found a 'trail' into the next small valley: Brown-crested Flycatcher (1). Crescent-chested Puffbird (1) (endemic). Long-tailed Tyrant (1). Tropical Peewee (fairly common). Rufous-headed Tanager (2). Spot-billed Toucanet (pr) observed at close range uttering deep croaks. Bananaquit - fairly common. Rufous Gnateater - pair encountered on the ground after hearing the deep burring noise from the wings. Feeding between 30 and 60 cm above the ground. A lek of Scale-throated Hermits perched and displaying c1.2 metres above the ground in understory. Good numbers of Phaethornis hummers in this area. Yellow-legged Thrush (m). Swallow-tailed Mankin (pr) - female 'whistled-in' by mimicking the call notes. The female came fairly close, later followed by a male. Male bird a beautiful light blue with black head/wings with a bright red crown. Distinctive elongated central tail feathers - only partly so on the female. Ferruginous Antbird (pr) (endemic) located singing and calling, very active c1.8 metres above the ground in an area containing some bamboo. Drab-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant also present here. Scalloped Antbird (endemic), two singing birds with one observed creeping on the ground. Pearly-breasted Cuckoo (1). Black-capped Foliage Gleaner (1). Pale-breasted Thrush (1). Sombre Hummingbird (2). Yellow-bellied Elaenia (1). Later on in the day, a Cinnamon Piha (endemic) at the Ferruginous Antbird site (still present).

    Hour before sunset, around the lodge: White-tailed Trogon (m). Crescent-chested Puffbird (1). Singing male Yellow-legged Thrush. Another responding from a few hundred metres away. Several Rufou-bellied Thrushes. A single Grey-rumped Swift over the lowers slopes below the lodge. Bananaquit (3+). Yellow-bellied Seedeater (pr). Great Kiskadee. Golden-chevroned Tanager (pr) at eye-level in the canopy of tree growing on the slope below the new lodge site. Sayaca Tanager (2). Piratic Tanager (2). Palm Tanager (2). Green-headed Tanager (3). Red-necked Tanager (2).


    Monday 10 November 2003
    Serra Bonita, (BA)

    0500h> Rufous-collared Sparrow. Tyrranulet sp. Three-striped Flycatcher. Rufous-bellied Thrush. Bananaquit. Green-headed Tanager. Yellow-bellied Seedeater. Tropical Kingbird. Great Kiskadee. Tropical Peewee. Squirrel Cuckoo. Spot-billed Toucanet. White-throated Spadebill. Swallow-tailed Manakin (2 prs). Black-capped Foliage-Gleaner. Plain Xenops -one observed and man more calling. Ferruginous Antbird - same pair at same location as yesterday. Straight-billed Woodcreeper observed climbing high up on a trunk in the sub-canopy. Red-necked Tanager. Flame-crested Tanager (3+). Green Honeycreeper. Spot-breasted Antbird (pr).

    Magpie Tanager (1). Smooth-billed Ani (5+). Euler's Flycatcher (1). Black-throated Mango (f). Red-necked Tanager (around 20+ inc. a flock of 8). Black Vulture (2). Turkey Vulture (1). Black Caracara (1). Bananaquit (fairly common). House Wren (singing while carrying food for young). Brown-chested Martin (20+). Great Dusky Swift (10+). Sepia-capped Flycatcher (1). Chestnut-bellied Euphonia (pr). Orange-bellied Euphonia (pr). Yellow-bellied Seedeater (flock of c20 in scrubby grassland around the masts). Blue-and-White Swallow (5+). Great Kiskadee. White-bellied Chachalaca (pr) in scrubby grassland in a clearing along the trail on the edge of the forest. Burnished-buff Tanager (m). Rufous-headed Pepper-Shrike (1). White-necked Thrush (pr). Grey-headed Tody-Flycatcher (2). Tropical Kingbird. Tropical Peewee. Reddish Hermit buzzing around at low level in the forest edge along the main track to the lodge - bee-like hum from its wings. Sayaca Tanager. Chestnut-collared Sparrow. Fork-tailed Woodnymph.


    Tuesday 11 November 2003
    Serra Bonita > Camacá > Ilhéus (RJ)

    0440h. The cloud level was the elevation of the ridge (825 metres) with poor visibility into the valleys until it cleared. Ruddy Ground Dove (3). Grey-headed Tody-Flycatcher (1). White-necked Thrush (3). Dusky-capped Flycatcher. Plain Xenops (calling). Yellow-legged Thrush (fairly common). Piratic Flycatcher. Red-necked Tanager (fairly common). Orange-breasted Euphonia (f). Reddish-bellied Parakeet (3). Yellow-bellied Seedeater (20+). Bananaquit. Brown-chested Martin. Great Kiskadee. Blue-and-White Swallow. Great Dusky Swift. Magpie Tanager. Sooty Grassquit (2). Green-headed Tanager (4). House Wren. Tropical Kingbird. Cliff Flycatcher. Turkey Vulture (3). Blue-hooded Euphonia (m). A mixed tangara flock contained at least Blue Dacnis (pr), Orange-bellied Euphonia (pr), Rufous-headed Tanager (1), and Green-headed Tanager (4+). A singing male Black-throated Grosbeak observed well. Crescent-chested Puffbird (2) - different individuals from those at the lodge. Swallow-tailed Manakin (m). Spot-billed Toucanet calling. Blue-black Grassquit (pr). Rufous-bellied Thrush. Tropical Peewee. Planalto Tyrannulet (1).
    Grey-hooded Attila (endemic) observed singing in the canopy - loud voice for a relatively small bird (c20 cm). Another one observed at close range further along the main track towards the lodge, this one perched low down on a tree overhanging the a cutting in the forested hillside. Streaked Fkycatcher. Long-tailed Tyrant. Reddish Hermit. Yellow-throated Woodpecker (pr). Grey-headed Tody-Flycatcher. Golden-chevroned Tanager (pr). Violaceous Euphonia (pr).

    0930h. Left the reserve for Camacá and then the bus to Ilheus. Species noted from the bus: Masked Water-Tyrant (in the bus station), Smooth-billed Ani, Tropical Kingbird, Black Vulture (several hundred in Camacá), Great Egret, Guira Cuckoo, Turkey Vulture and House Sparrow.

    Clean beach with little apparent wildlife. Hot, blue sky and no seabirds offshore. The few birds present were actually around a sewer pipe. Yellowish Pipit - several pairs on the sparsely vegetation foreshore. Southern Lapwing (3) around the dirty pool at the outlet. Collared Plover (4) - like a South American version of Ringed Plover. Masked Water-Tyrant running around the sand on the edge of the pool. Feral Rock Doves and Black Vultures common. Great Kiskadee. Brown-chested Martin. Sayaca Tanager. Grey-breasted Martin. Peregrine soaring with vultures on the edge of the town, over the beach before dusk.


    Wednesday 12 November 2003

    Species noted from the balcony: Sayaca Tanager, Black Vulture, Rufous-bellied Thrush, Grey-breasted Martin and House Sparrow.


    Thursday 13 November 2003
    Ilhéus > long distance bus south to Rio de Janeiro (RJ)

    Species note around town: Tropical Mockingbird, Short-tailed Hawk, Sayaca Tanager, Black Vulture, House Sparrow, Turkey Vulture, Palm Tanager, Feral Rock Dove and Grey-breasted Martin.

    Ilheus BeachCathedralIlheus

    Start of a long bus journey south. Species noted en route: Great Egret (200+ along a large river), Long-tailed Tyrant, Grey-breasted Martin, Smooth-billed Ani, Turkey Vulture and Feral Rock Dove.

    Overnight journey continued: Black Vulture, Feral Rock Dove, Turkey Vulture, Southern Lapwing, Wattled Jacana, Smooth-billed Ani, Picui Ground Dove (observed in waste ground at a bus station during a break), Blue-and-White Swallow, Sayaca Tanager, House Sparrow, Great Kisadee, Masked Water-Tyrant, Tropical Kingbird and Burrowing Owl.


    Friday 14 November 2003
    Continuation of bus journey to Rio de Janeiro then to Paraty (RJ)

    0745h. Species noted from the bus towards Rio in the rain: Great Egret, Cattle Egret, Fork-tailed Flycatcher, Ruddy Ground Dove, Black Vulture, Turkey Vulture, House Sparrow, Tropical Kingbird, Feral Rock Dove, Great Kiskadee, American Kestrel, Smooth-billed Ani, Blue-and-White Swallow, White-necked Heron, Black-crowned Night Heron,

    1400h. Magnificent Frigatebirds over Rio! (groups of 1, 17, 23, 1 and 6). Roadside Hawk (2), Feral Rock Dove, House Sparrow, Great Kiskadee, Black Vultures abundant (flock of c250 birds soaring in a high, towering spiral-like formation), Smooth-billed Ani, Ruddy Ground Dove, American Kestrel, Tropical Kingbird, Cattle Egret, Great Egret, Blue-black Grassquit, Peregrine, Crested Caracara, Blue-and-White Swallow, Cattle Tyrant, Picazuro Pigeon, Snowy Egret, House Wren and Saffron Finch.


    Saturday 15 November 2003
    Paraty (RJ)

    Small colonial town in Ilha Grande bay. Observations at the brackish pool/destroyed mangrove swamp area behind the foreshore: Semi-palmated Plover (19). Cattle Egret (3). Little Blue Heron (3 imms.). Greater Yellowlegs (3). Sanderling (1). White-faced Tree Duck (1). Spotted Sandpiper (2). Ruddy Turnstone (4). Kelp Gull (3). Ringed Kingfisher (1). Southern Lapwing (1). Neotropic Cormorant common on the sea. Magnification Frigatebird (2) overhead. Black Vulture feeding on a large skate/ray washed up on to the beach. Cattle Tyrant. Great Kiskadee. House Wren. Blue-and-White Swallow. Brown-chested Martin. Feral Rock Dove. Ruddy Ground Dove. Grey-breasted Martin.

    ParatyCobbled Street & Colonial BuildingsAmerican Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus)

    Later walked north out of the main are of the town towards the mast on the hill with the defence museum and canons: Tropical Kingbird. House Wren. Saffron Finch (5). Blue-black Grassquit. Sayaca Tanager. Social Flycatcher. Fork-tailed Flycatcher. Masked Water-Tyrant. Screaming Cowbird (2). Southern Lapwing (2 prs).  Brazilian Tanager (2 mm). Smooth-billed Ani. Shiny Cowbird. Southern Rough-winged Swallow. Cattle Tyrant. Great Kiskadee. Palm Tanager. Bananaquit. Brown Booby (20+) feeding offshore including one birds right overhead along the shoreline. Crested Caracara (1). Magnificent Frigatebird (5). Common Waxbill (flk. 8). Swallow-tailed Hummingbird (1). Blue Dacnis (pr). Swallow Tanager (pr). Black-legged Dacnis (pr). Rufous-bellied Elaenia. Blue-winged Parrotlet. Cattle Egret. Picazura Pigeon.


    Sunday 16 November 2003
    Paraty  > São Paulo Guarahlos > Amsterdam > London Heathrow

    alked north out of the town at 0600h through area of gardens, scrub and second growth to a small area of coastal mangrove swamp. Double-collared Seedeater (4). Masked Water-Tyrant (6 in total including displaying birds). Smooth-billed Ani. House Wren. Tropical Kingbird. Great Kiskadee. Neotropic Cormorant. Fork-tailed Flycatcher (2). Sayaca Tanager. Magnificent Frigatebird (6) over land early in the morning – common after 0900h. Black Vulture. Spotted Sandpiper (1). Blue-and-White Swallow. Grey-breasted Martin. Brown-chested Martin. Striated Heron (1). Blue-black Grassquit. Social Flycatcher. Brazilian Tanager (f). Solitary Sandpiper (2). Southern Lapwing (2). Common Waxbill (flock of 20). Ruddy Ground-Dove. Guira Cuckoo (2). Brazilian Teal (3). Snowy Egret (2). Yellow-crowned Night Heron (1). Clapper Rail (2). Red-and-White Crake (1). Glittering-throated Emerald. Bananaquit. Plumbeous Kite (1). Masked Yellowthroat (singing m). Ruby-crowned Tanager. Green-barred Woodpecker. Purple-throated Euphonia. Violet-capped Woodnymph. Frilled Coquette. Palm Tanager. Blue-winged Parrotlet. Blue-billed Black-Tyrant. White-tailed Goldenthroat. Black Jacobin.

    Magnificent Frigatebirds fairly common along the coast. Cliff Flycatcher and more of the ubiquitous American Black Vultures to end the trip.


    Systematic List to be posted soon...